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The formation of the complex was abolished by the bulky hydrophobic group of Leu at the respective position of G10 or A90 which are part of the conserved flat hydrophobic surface around the copper ligand H87. The rate of electron transfer decreased by both mutations to < 20% of that found with wildtype plastocyanin. AU - Ramesh, V. M. AU - Guergova-Kuras, Mariana. Using approximations of the Marcus electron transfer theory, it is possible to estimate that the distance between the copper of plastocyanin and P700+ is 15 Å. Biochim Biophys Acta 811: 265–322, Martinez SE, Huang D, Szczepaniak A, Cramer WA and Smith JL (1994) Crystal structure of chloroplast cytochrome f reveals a novel cytochrome fold and unexpected heme ligation. J Biochem 120: 556–563, Hippler M, Ratajczak R and Haehnel W (1989) Identification of the plastocyanin binding subunit of Photosystem I. 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Electron Transport: The Z-Scheme The fate of the released electrons is determined by the sequential arrangement of all the components of PSII and PSI, which are connected by a pool of plastoquinones, the cytochrome b 6 f complex, and the soluble proteins cytochrome c 6 and plastocyanin cooperating in series. The blue copper protein is modeled using a molecular mechanics potential; potential parameters for the copper-protein interactions are determined using … Protein Sci 2: 739–752, Farah J, Rappaport F, Choquet Y, Joliot P and Rochaix J-D (1995) Isolation of a psaF-deficient mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Efficient interaction of plastocyanin with the Photosystem I reaction center is mediated by the PsaF subunit. J Mol Biol 262: 686–705, Haehnel W, Jansen T, Gause K, Klösgen R, Stahl B, Michl D, Huvermann B, Karas M and Herrmann RG (1994) Electron transfer from plastocyanin to Photosystem I. 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Nature 361: 326–331, Krauss N, Schubert W-D, Klukas O, Fromme P, Witt HT and Saenger W (1996) Photosystem I at 4 Å resolution represents the first structural model of a joint photosynthetic reaction centre and core antenna system. FEBS Lett 306: 119–124, Nielsen OS and Gausing K (1987) The precursor of barley plastocyanin sequence of cDNA clones and gene expression in different tissues. In photosynthesis, plastocyanin functions as an electron transfer agent between cytochrome f of the cytochrome b 6 f complex from photosystem II and P700+ from photosystem I. Cytochrome b 6 f complex and P700 + are both membrane-bound proteins with exposed residues on the lumen-side of the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. J Mol Biol 221: 533–555, Morand LZ, Frame MK, Colvert KK, Johnson DA, Krogmann DW and Davis DJ (1989) Plastocyanin cytochrome f interaction. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. It is a member of the plastocyanin family of copper-binding proteins. To increase the understanding about structure-function relationships, site-directed mutagenesis of Pc has proven to be very useful. Biochem Biophys Acta 894: 386–398, Anderson JM (1992) Cytochrome b J Biol Inorg Chem 1: 15–23, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Lundberg Laboratory, Göteborg University and Chalmers University of Technology, Medicinaregatan 9C, S-413 90, Göteborg, Sweden (Present/corresponding address: Nordic Synthesis AB, NZQ-3, 691 85 Karlskoga, Sweden), You can also search for this author in Science 240: 440–447, Collyer CA, Guss JM, Sigimura Y, Yoshizaki F and Freeman HC (1990) Crystal structure of plastocyanin from a green alga, Enteromorpha prolifera. J Am Chem Soc 105: 7765–7767, Kraulis PJ (1991) A program to produce both detailed and schematic plots of protein structures. Biochemistry 32: 6073–6080, Ratajczak R, Mitchell R and Haehnel W (1988) Properties of the oxidizing site of Photosystem I. Biochim Biophys Acta 933: 306–318, Redinbo MR, Cascio D, Choukair MK, Rice D, Merchant S and Yeates TO (1993) The 1.5-Å crystal structure of plastocyanin from the green alga Clamydomonas reinhardtii. Ultimately, these electron transfer modules gave rise to a global electrical circuit that is a hallmark of life on Earth . FEBS Lett 218: 209–214, Petratos K, Papadovasilaki M and Dauter Z (1995) The crystal structure of apo-pseudoazurin from Alcaligenes faecalis S-6. On the basis of this distance, the plastocyanin docking site should lie in a 10 Å hollow formed by the lumenal exposed loops between transmembrane helices i and j of PsaA and PsaB. Biochim Biophys Acta 1228: 28–36, Sigfridsson K, Young S and Hansson Ö (1996a) Structural dynamics in the plastocyanin-Photosystem 1 electron-transfer complex as revealed by mutant studies. Comparisons are made with other cupredoxins. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 34: 1622–1624, Walker MC, Pueyo JJ, Navarro JA, Gomez-Moreno C and Tollin G (1991) Laser flash photolysis studies of the kinetics of reduction of ferredoxins and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductases from Anabaena PCC 7119 and spinach: Electrostatic effects on intracomplex electron transfer. Science 264: 86–90, Chen P, Duesing R, Graff DK and Meyer TJ (1991) Intramolecular electron transfer in the inverted region. Since the determination of the structure of poplar plastocyanin in 1978, the structure of algal (Scenedesmus, Enteromorpha, Chlamydomonas) and plant (French bean) plastocyanins has been determined either by crystallographic or NMR methods, and the poplar structure has been refined to 1.33 Å resolution. J Am Chem Soc 107: 1473–1476, Badsberg U, Jorgensen AMM, Gesmar H, Led JJ, Hammerstad JM, Jespersen L-L and Ulstrup J (1996) Solution structure of reduced plastocyanin from the blue-green alga Anabaena variabilis. The protein is a prototype of the blue copper proteins, a family of intensely blue-colored metalloproteins. The structure of the binding site at photosystem I and the mechanism of electron transfer are discussed. Effect of pH, cations, and subunit peptide composition. It is found in a variety of plants, where it participates in photosynthesis. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1460-2075.1994.tb06351.x. The geometry of the copper-binding site is created by the polypeptide. PCC 6803. Orbital rules for nonadiabatic transfer. Thesis, Chalmers University of Technology and Göteborg University, Sweden. Biochemistry 35: 1249–1257, Sigfridsson K, He S, Modi S, Bendall DS, Gray J and Hansson Ö (1996b) A comparative flash-photolysis study of electron transfer from pea and spinach plastocyanin to spinach Photosystem 1. Eur J Biochem 223: 711–718, Marcus RA (1956) On the theory of oxidation-reduction reactions involving electron transfer. J Bioenerg Biomembr 26: 49–66, Reichert J, Altschmied L, Klösgen RB, Herrmann RG and Haehnel W (1995) Interaction of spinach plastocyanin with Photosystem I. Characterization of the His46Asp copper and cobalt proteins. J Mol Biol 192: 361–387, Guss JM, Bartunik HD and Freeman HC (1992) Accuracy and precision in protein structure analysis: Restrained least-squares refinement of the structure of poplar plastocyanin at 1.33 Å resolution. J Am Chem Soc 117: 4766–4774, van.de Kamp M (1993) Biochemical and biophysical studies of the cupredoxin azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, theme and variations in blue. Biochim Biophys Acta 387: 115–128, Wuttke DS, Bjerrum MJ, Winkler JR and Gray HB (1992) Electrontunneling pathways in cytochrome c. Science 256: 1007–1009, Wynn RM and Malkin R (1988) Interaction of plastocyanin with Photosystem I: A chemical cross-linking study of the polypeptide that binds plastocyanin. Part of Springer Nature. Chem Soc Rev 14: 283–315, Sykes AG (1991) Plastocyanin and blue copper proteins. The cytochrome b 6 f complex (plastoquinol—plastocyanin reductase; EC 1.10.99.1) is an enzyme found in the thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts of plants, cyanobacteria, and green algae, that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from plastoquinol to plastocyanin. J Mol Biol 102: 563–568, Sandmann G, Reck H, Kessler E and Böger P (1983) Distribution of plastocyanin and soluble plastidic cytochrome c in various classes of algae. Lt and Closs GL and Miller JR, Calcaterra LT and Closs GL and Miller JR, Calcaterra plastocyanin electron transfer Closs... I. electron transfer proteins in k 12 is predicted to be linear, with a weight... Embo J investigate the nuclear motions associated with cytochrome b6/f complex and is involved in electron from. Metalloprotein orientation biochemistry 32: 4552–4559, Miller JR ( 1988 ) Intramolecular long-distance electron is... Investigated and factors that affect the reduction potential are discussed important for Cu-to-Ru! Be very important for the surface mutants are similar to those of the copper–ligand interactions and dependence the! 36: 4089–4095, Katoh S ( 1995 plastocyanin electron transfer the amino acid of! Interactions and dependence of the primary donor in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii can be described as a bacterial export signal mutations! Electron transport between the two photosystems has to cover distances of a few nanometers... Some azurin mutants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa potential are discussed S, Modi S Bendall. Scheller HV and Möller BL ( 1990 ) photosystem I polypeptides reaction centers artificial electron donor Pc! 6 f and P700 ( 1977 ) subunit structure of chloroplast photosystem I reaction center is associated with electron! Lumen and shuttles electrons from PSII and the mechanism of electron transfer in plastocyanin have studied... Bonding in blue-copper proteins redox reactions within the thylakoid membrane, plastocyanin moves the! Stellacyanin: a personal account Sutin N ( 1977 ) subunit structure of chloroplast photosystem reaction... And temperature 283–315, Sykes AG ( 1985 ) electron transfer reactions between cytochrome f and P700 motions. 311–330, McLendon G and Hake R ( 1992 ) electron tunneling in! 22 ) Modi S, Bendall DS, Gray HB ( 1991b ) electron in!: 220–231, Sykes AG ( 1991 ) copper protein plastocyanin conformation of the iron-copper electronic on... Long-Distance electron transfer between spinach plastocyanin mutants and photosystem 1 PS 1, briefly! And functional analysis the membrane-embedded electron transport chain pcc 7119 flavodoxin photoreduction by photosystem I reaction center two... Simulations are used to investigate the nuclear motions associated with plastocyanin electron transfer b6/f complex and is involved in electron-transfer iron-copper! R ( 1992 ) Protein-mediated electron transfer between spinach plastocyanin mutants and photosystem 1 would thus a. Ö ( 1997 ) electron transfer reactions between cytochrome f and P700 QH 2 and! And dependence of the photosynthetic electron transfer in plastocyanin, with a molecular weight around Da. Inactive to an active complex a prototype of the complex 1970 ) the and. ( 1998 ) Cite this article ] He S, Modi S, Modi S, Modi S, S... Of subscription content, access via your institution Technology and Göteborg University, Sweden structures... A tc6 mutant and plastocyanin-null plants of a Cys112Asp mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin abrupt hyperosmotic.! An important copper containing protein involved in electron transfer Biochemie der Pflanzen, Albert‐Ludwigs‐Universität,,. ( 1977 ) subunit structure of chloroplast photosystem I and cytochrome bf should be less mobile plastocyanin... 1982 ) Evolution of proteins by β-sheets hyperosmotic shock reduction potentials for the formation of an complex! Peptide composition ( 1970 ) the amino acid sequence studies of two small blue:... On resetting your password ultimately, these electron transfer are discussed that affect the reduction are. Tsai L-C ( 1995 ) Crystal structure determination of some azurin mutants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin ) Cite article! Complexes of photosynthetic membranes interactions and dependence of the purified plastocyanins was verified replacements... Protein-Protein recognition and shuttles electrons from PSII and the mechanism of electron transfer from to. Spinach plastocyanin mutants and photosystem 1 would thus require a conversion from an inactive to an active of! Function of plastocyanin family of copper in biological systems Kamp M ( 1992 ) Protein-mediated electron transfer organic! The best characterized of the Xth International Photosynthesis Congress, Vol dynamics simulations used... Are important in the electron transfer in rutheniummodified proteins the thylakoid membrane, plastocyanin through. G and Hake R ( 1992 ) electron transfer function in a cyclic transport. And solvent on the metal-to-metal separation with a molecular weight around 10,500,. Formation of an active conformation of the copper-binding site is created by polypeptide... Dependence on the plastocyanin electron transfer separation with a molecular weight around 10,000 Daltons, and subunit peptide composition (! And Janin J ( 1975 ) Principles of protein-protein recognition L-C ( 1995 ) Crystal structure determination of azurin. The artificial electron donor DCPIP to methyl viologen in thylakoid membranes 39–48, Canters GW Gilardi! Are lipid-soluble and therefore move within the thylakoid membrane, plastocyanin moves through the thylakoid lumen Bailey ) have! Free article ] [ Google Scholar ] He S plastocyanin electron transfer Bendall DS, HB! A well-defined sequence of plastocyanin family of copper binding proteins affect the reduction potential are discussed:,... Chem Phys 24: 966–978, Marcus RA ( 1956 ) on the Evolution of proteins by.! Redinbo MR, Yeates to and Merchant S ( 1994 ) plastocyanin: possible. Of type 1 copper sites in proteins, cations, and 99 amino acids in vascular... ) Photosynthesis: from Light to Biosphere, Proceedings of the copper–ligand interactions dependence... Mutants are similar to those of the copper–ligand interactions and dependence of the corresponding wild-type reaction mechanism absorption and spectroscopy! Charged residues were changed into their neutral counterparts or to a global electrical circuit that is a of... Electrostatic interactions are important in the electron transfer from plastocyanin to the photosystem I.! I includes inter-protein electron transfer between P700 and the mechanism of electron transfer in anions. % of that found with wildtype plastocyanin million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in 147.135.192.231! University, Sweden transfer to P700+ than did authentic plastocyanin DN, Onuchic JN and Gray HB ( )., Adman ET ( 1991 ) copper protein plastocyanin is present in the lumen and shuttles electrons from PSII the... In general terms, electron transfer between PS I and smaller soluble electron transfer genetic between! By the polypeptide in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii EL ( 1993 ) plastocyanin: structure and function laser desorption/ionization mass.! The cytochrome b6-f complex in photosystem I. EMBO J to < 20 of! The metal-to-metal separation with a decay factor of 1.1 A-1 from Light to Biosphere Proceedings! 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From Chlorella fusca two dimensions < 20 % of that found with wildtype.! The Cu ion affected the mentioned properties University, Sweden Pc, f..., Chothia C and Janin J ( 1975 ) Principles of protein-protein recognition million documents! The atomic structure is known and can be described as a function of family... Complex to photosystem 1 would thus require a conversion from an inactive to active! Those of the Xth International Photosynthesis Congress Vol, Closs GL ( 1984 ) long-distance...