Folic Acid Metabolism. 65, No. 3, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes, Vol. While folic acid and tetrahydrofolate contribute to a myriad of processes, two of these metabolic pathways have been of interest for cancer chemotherapy (see Figure 2). 28, No. Biochemistry Department, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland See all articles by this author.  Only monoglutamyl form of folic acid is absorbed from the intestine  The enzyme folate conjugase is present in duodenum & jejunum  Mucosal uptake & metabolism in mucosal cell  Folate monoglutamate is taken up by the mucosal cell  In the mucosal cell, folate monoglutamate is reduced to tetrahydrofolate & methylated to form N5 methyl tetrahydrofolate (in circulation) Methoxtrexate (MTX) is another analog of folic acid still in use as an antitumor chemotherapeutic that directly inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, as well as inhibiting thymidylate synthase. 1, Experimental Parasitology, Vol. Nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism interact to regulate DNA methylation, especially folic acid and B vitamins. 30, No. et al. Thus, if a mixture of synthetic folic acid plus food folate has been fed, dietary folate equivalents (DFEs) are calculated as follows to determine the EAR: Recent advances in classical and non-classical antifolates as antitumor and antiopportunistic infection agents: Part II. Site Use Terms Kim, Y.-I. folic acid metabolism and human embryopathy Previous Article DO UNCONSCIOUS POISONED PATIENTS NEED PROPHYLACTIC PENICILLIN ? Achetez neuf ou d'occasion 2, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects, Vol. Add to Cart. 43, No. Folic acid metabolism and mechanism of action As folic acid is biochemically inactive, it is converted by dihydrofolate reductase to tetrahydrofolic acid and methyltetrahydrofolate. While dietary folate deficiency is associated with increased risk for birth defects and other diseases, evidence suggests that supplementation with folic acid can contribute to predisposition to some diseases, including immune dysfunction and cancer. 208, No. Victor Herbert, Kshitish C. Das, The Role of Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in Hemato- and Other Cell-Poiesis, , 10.1016/S0083-6729(08)60071-0, (1-30), (1976). Dietary folic acid is the starting material for the cycle's fundamental molecule tetrahydrofolic acid (tetrahydrofolate, THF). Folate (vitamin B-9) is important in red blood cell formation and for healthy cell growth and function. Interference with folate metabolism has a greater toxic effect on rapidly dividing cells, such as red blood cells, bone marrow cells, gastrointestinal cells, and malignant cells. Interference or prevention of folic acid metabolism is then potentially both a cause of malignancy and a means to induce apoptosis or necrosis in malignant cells. Folate depletion may also contribute to reduced levels of S-adenosylmethionine, resulting in hypomethylation of DNA. 15, European Journal of Cancer (1965), Vol. Product # Description. Folic acid can alter the metabolism of phenytoin. The metabolic cycling and regeneration of tetrahydrofolate. 429856: 2-Amino-6-fluorobenzonitrile 99% : pricing. Effects of amethopterin on the coulokinetic behaviour of Escherichia Coli, American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology, American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology, American Journal of Physiology (1898-1976). 4, 22 May 2014 | Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, Vol. The following link shows that THF is a cofactor for serine hydroxymethyltransferase, the enzyme that converts serine to glycine. Stokstad, E.L.R. 32, No. (NCI05) Because folate metabolism is required for cell replication and survival, compounds that are metabolic inhibitors have successfully been used as antitumor therapeutics, albeit with toxicity and limited application. Paradoxically, inhibition of folic acid metabolism has been used as a mechanism for successful elimination of malignant cells, but insufficient folic acid levels in normal cells have been associated with DNA damage and altered DNA methylation conditions that have been associated with malignant transformation. The complexity of the folic acid metabolic cycle and its use in construction and modification of fundamental biomolecules of the cell allow this paradox to exist. Amino Acid Metabolism THF is a cofactor for enzymes that metabolize histidine, serine, glycine, and methionine 7. 1, 12 February 2018 | Journal of Proteome Research, Vol. 6. 3, Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, Vol. 20, No. The synthetic form of folate is folic acid. MATERNAL MEDICAL CONDITION Uncontrolled DM – associated with congenital heart defects Phenylketonuria Grave’s Disease – affects fetal thyroid 5. Folate and carcinogenesis: An integrated scheme. 8, No. | Privacy. Figure 2. They are the only forms of the molecule that are known to be biologically active. A second important folate metabolic reaction is the conversion of homocysteine to the amino acid methionine by the action of 5-methyl-THF-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.13). Since folic acid taken with food is 85 percent bio-available but food folate is only about 50 percent bio-available, folic acid taken with food is 85/50 (i.e., 1.7) times more available. Raymond T. P. Paul. Some of this regenerated methionine is subsequently transformed along with ATP by the enzyme methionine adenosyl transferase (EC 2.5.1.6) to produce S-adenosylmethionine (SAM or SAdoMet), phosphate, and diphosphate. Folinic acid should be distinguished from folic acid (vitamin B 9). 1164, No. Folic acid is enzymatically reduced by dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR, EC 1.5.1.3) either partially to the intermediate dihydrofolate (DHF) or completely to tetrahydrofolate. The amino acids requiring folic acid for metabolism are methionine, cysteine, serine, glycine, and histidine. This metabolic process is the de novo synthesis of deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP, 5-CH2-dUMP) from deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) through addition of a methyl group by the enzyme thymidylate synthase (EC 2.1.1.45), with subsequent phosphorylation to the deoxynucleotide triphosphate. 60, No. These two enzymes support de novo purine synthesis processes, generating precursors to adenine and guanine, the nucleotide bases required for the synthesis of deoxyadenoside triphosphate (dATP) and deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP), two additional DNA building blocks. Reproduction of any materials from the site is strictly forbidden without permission. 193, No. The methylation of DNA is an important epigenetic modification that utilizes S-adenosylmethionine as a methyl donor. There was no indication of folic acid deficiency in calves fed a synthetic milk containing 52 µg of folic acid per kg (23.6 µg per lb) of liquid fed at 10% of body weight (Wiese et al., 1947). American Chemical Society (USA). 1, International Journal of Biochemistry, Vol. Search for more papers by this author. Mary V Gamble, Xinhua Liu, Habibul Ahsan, J Richard Pilsner, Vesna Ilievski, Vesna Slavkovich, Faruque Parvez, Yu Chen, Diane Levy, Pam Factor-Litvak, Joseph H Graziano, Folate and arsenic metabolism: a double-blind, placebo-controlled folic acid–supplementation trial in Bangladesh, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 84, Issue 5, November 2006, Pages 1093–1101, … The conve… The trials using folic acid to prevent neural tube defects thus seem to be effectively overcoming a metabolic block rather than treating folate deficiency. Author information: (1)Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis 95616, USA. 1, Copyright © 2021 the American Physiological Society, https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.1967.47.1.83, Enzymes of the one-carbon folate metabolism as anticancer targets predicted by survival rate analysis, Pharmacometabonomics Analysis Reveals Serum Formate and Acetate Potentially Associated with Varying Response to Gemcitabine-Carboplatin Chemotherapy in Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients, Synthesis, photophysical and cellular characterisation of folate and methotrexate labelled luminescent lanthanide complexes, Effects of different levels of dietary folic acid on the growth performance, muscle composition, immune response and antioxidant capacity of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Plasma reduced folates, reproductive performance, and conceptus development in sows in response to supplementation with oxidizedand reduced sources of folic acid1, The impact of phenylketonuria on folate metabolism, Digested Bacterial Cell Powder (DBCP) as a Source of Reduced-form Folates for Pigs: Use of a Trimethoprim-resistant Strain and the Bioavailability of Folates in DBCP, The properties of the secreted γ-glutamyl hydrolases from H35 hepatoma cells, Folate and cobalamin metabolism in Plasmodium falciparum, De novo and salvage biosynthesis of pteroylpentaglutamates in the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, Rate-limiting steps in the interactions of fluoropyrimidines and methotrexate, Inhibition of buttermilk xanthine oxidase by folate analogues and derivatives, Fluoropyrimidine-induced antagonism to free and tightly bound methotrexate: Suppression of [14C] formate incorporation into RNA and protein, Studies on methanol toxicity and formate metabolism in isolated hepatocytes, Alcohol-oxidizing enzymes from various organisms, Plasmodium knowlesi: In vitro biosynthesis of methionine and thymidylic acid, Studies on the enzymatic hydrolysis of polyglutamyl folates by chicken liver folyl poly-γ-glutamyl carboxypeptidase I. Intracellular localization, purification and partial characterization of the enzyme, Comparative Biochemistry of folate metabolism in Aphelenchus Avenae and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda), Folic acid non-dependent formiminoglutamic aciduria in two siblings, Mammalian methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase Partial purification, properties, and inhibition by S-adenosylmethionine, Plasmodium knowlesi: In vitro evaluation of antimalarial activity of folic acid inhibitors, A model system for the study of heteroexchange diffusion: Methotrexate-folate interactions in L1210 leukemia and Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, [183] Tetrahydrofolic acid and formaldehyde, [188] The synthesis of N5,N10-methenyltetrahydrofolic acid, Studies of [3H]folic acid uptake by Lactobacillus casei, A derangement in B12 metabolism associated with homocystinemia, cystathioninemia, hypomethioninemia and methylmalonic aciduria, Characteristics of folic acid transport in the L1210 leukemia cell, Studies of the oxidation of some aminopteridines by xanthine oxidase, Cellular electrophysiology XVI. 7, Biochemical Pharmacology, Vol. 1 A derangement in B12 metabolism associated with homocystinemia, cystathioninemia, hypomethioninemia and methylmalonic aciduria Folic acid or folate is crucial for normal DNA synthesis and can regulate DNA methylation, and through this, it affects cellular SAM levels. 1, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Enzymology, Vol. One function of folic acid metabolism is the support of DNA synthesis and repair through the generation of nucleic acid building blocks. Folic acid is also essential for the metabolism of homocysteine, and helps maintain normal levels of this amino acid. Sigma-Aldrich Products are sold exclusively through Sigma-Aldrich, Inc. 250, No. Chapter 15: Folate and folic acid, in "Vitamin and Mineral Requirements in Human Nutrition", World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2004). De très nombreux exemples de phrases traduites contenant "interfere with folic acid metabolism" – Dictionnaire français-anglais et moteur de recherche de traductions françaises. A3411: Aminopterin powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture : pricing. Permetrexed is a multitargeted antifolate that blocks several folic acid cycle enzymes in addition to thymidylate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase. Next Article KETOSIS-RESISTANT YOUNG DIABETICS The reactions of interest discussed in this review are highlighted. However, folinic acid is a vitamer for folic acid and has the full vitamin activity of this vitamin. INFECTIOUS AGENT TORCH Toxoplasmosis Others- Syphilis/Treponema/Varicella Zoster/Parvovirus Rubella Cytomegalovirus Herpes Simplex If … Sources of folic acid Foods that are especially rich in folic acid include green leafy vegetables (such as spinach), mushrooms, liver, nuts, dried beans, peas, egg yolk, and wholemeal bread. Background Recent evidence suggests that sex plays a role when there are deficiencies in one-carbon metabolism, however, the impact on brain tissue remains unknown. One in vivo study found that folate deficiency in rats was associated with DNA strand breaks and hypomethylation of specific sequences of the p53 tumor suppressor gene.1 Researchers chose to study p53 for changes potentially associated with dietary folate deficiency as this gene is mutated in 30-50% of common human cancers. 1). Various species differ markedly in their requirements for folic acid. 223, No. Methionine conversion also requires vitamin B12 and B6. Folic acid is responsible for the following tasks: Folic acid plays a vital role in the development of the neural tube the first development stage of the nervous system as well as in cell growth processes and in DNA synthesis. Clifford AJ(1), Arjomand A, Dueker SR, Schneider PD, Buchholz BA, Vogel JS. 49, No. The illustration corresponds to the Formic Acid C1 pool indicated on the Nicholson Metabolic Pathways map available through the our website (sigma-aldrich.com/pathways). The nutrient is crucial during early pregnancy to reduce the risk of birth defects of the brain and spine.Folate is found mainly in dark green leafy vegetables, beans, peas and nuts. 1, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes, Vol. The K m of phenytoin metabolism was significantly reduced, suggesting competitive inhibition of metabolism. 2, European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology, Vol. Donald G. Weir . Other folic acid metabolic pathways that are important to DNA synthesis and modification are those maintained by the enzymes phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase (glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase, GAR, EC 2.1.2.2) and phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide formyltransferase (5-aminoimidazole-4- carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase, AICAR, EC 2.1.2.3). All Rights Reserved. 3, Experimental Parasitology, Vol. McGuire, J.J. Anticancer antifolates: Current status and future directions. Studies using healthy cells show that folate deficiency can result in DNA damage, including chromosomal breaks and sequence miscoding, possibly due to insufficient levels of thymidine. 16, No. C5913: 4-Chloromercuribenzoic acid cysteine active site modifier : pricing. THF is subsequently processed through a variety of oxidative enzymatic modifications that subsequently function as one-carbon donors (see Figure 1). Food and Nutritional Biochemistry Subdivision [Corporate Author] 19, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Comparative Biochemistry, Vol. Vitamin B9 is an important nutrient for one-carbon metabolism, DNA synthesis, and amino acid metabolism.Deficiency can lead to megaloblastic anemia and is associated with an increased risk of cancer and other diseases.There are two main forms of vitamin B9: folate (the natural form) and folic acid (the synthetic form). Folic acid metabolism in human subjects revisited: potential implications for proposed mandatory folic acid fortification in the UK Anthony J. Recent advances in classical and non-classical antifolates as antitumor and antiopportunistic infection agents: Part I. Gangjee, A. et al. Department of Mental Health, Queen's University Belfast, Whitla Medical Building, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7BL, Northern Ireland. Young ruminants without a fully functional rumen require folic acid supplementation of milk replacer. Folate, also known as vitamin B 9 and folacin, is one of the B vitamins. 178, Journal of Animal Science, Vol. As a natural water-soluble substance, folic acid is involved in carbon transfer reactions of amino acid metabolism, in addition to purine and pyrimidine synthesis, and is essential for hematopoiesis and red blood cell production. Bertino, J.R. Cancer research: From folate antagonism to molecular targets. 48, No. John M. Scott 1. Newer classical antifolates (folate structural analogs) used in cancer chemotherapy include trimetrexate, permetrexed, and raltitrexed, while non-classical antifolates have also been investigated for functionality as antitumor and antibacterial agents. Therefore, folate levels and metabolism are necessary for normal and malignant cells to synthesize and repair DNA, and to subsequently methylate DNA and other biomolecules. Methylation play… As folate metabolism is fundamental to both cancerous and normal cells, so folate depletion and its resultant reduction of DNA synthesis and DNA methylation must be toxic to both malignant and normal cells. John M. Scott . 3, Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, Vol. 208, No. Folic acid cannot be synthesized but is obtained through diet, primarily fruits, vegetables, and fortified grains. As implied by the image, THF metabolism is not linear but may shift to create one-carbon-donating substrates as needed for particular cellular processes. which regulates folic acid metabolism is susceptible (thermolabile) and mimics folic acid deficiency 4. Folic Acid, Homocysteine and One-Carbon Metabolism: A Review of the Essential Biochemistry Show all authors. In one case folic acid 5 mg/day reduced the serum phenytoin concentration to below the target range, and a breakthrough seizure occurred [ 25 ]. Gangjee, A. et al. S-Adenosylmethionine is a key substrate for methyltransferases and participates in more than 100 types of methylation reactions of biological molecules such as lipids and peptides. 5, Biochemical Pharmacology, Vol. In light of developed drug resistance to methotrexate, many synthetic compounds that inhibit dihydrofolate reductase and/or thymidylate synthase have been screened. 481, No. Since a lack of vitamin B12 also leads to a folic acid deficiency, the former has a doubly important position in the cell metabolism. The one-carbon donor molecules are colored red in the illustrated structures. The dynamics of folic acid metabolism in an adult given a small tracer dose of 14C-folic acid. 5, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology, Vol. Type in Product Names, Product Numbers, or CAS Numbers to see suggestions. Folate deficiency in rats induces DNA strand breaks and hypomethylation within the p53 tumor suppressor gene. 1, The American Journal of Medicine, Vol. 3, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes, Vol. 2, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Comparative Biochemistry, Vol. 76, No. © 2021  Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and/or its affiliates. Folic acid also serves as a coenzyme in conversion of methionine to homocysteine. A1784: Aminopterin powder : pricing. Retrouvez Folic Acid Metabolism in Health and Disease et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. Folic Acid Metabolism: A Role in Cancer's Cause and Cure The mammalian folic acid cycle is a highly complex but crucial process for the transfer of one-carbon units to amino acids, nucleotides, and other biomolecules. Folic acid is a synthetic form of vitamin B9 that's often added to processed foods and used in supplements. The principal function of folate coenzymes is to accept or donate one-carbon units in key metabolic pathways (Fig. 17, No. Innovative Products & Tools for Cancer Research, Authenticated Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines for Cancer Research, Authenticated Breast Cancer Cell Lines for Cancer Research, Authenticated Lung Cancer Cell Lines for Cancer Research, Authenticated Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines for Cancer Research, Authenticated Liver Cancer Cell Lines for Cancer Research, Applications of Cytokines and Growth Factors in Cancer Research, Epigentic Mechanisms in Cancer Pathogenesis, 5-Methyl-THF-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase, Phosphoribosylamidoimidazole-carboxamide formyltransferase. Levofolinic acid and its salts are the 2S- form of the molecule. Choi, S.-W. et al. Epidemiological studies have indicated that folic acid protects against gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Both vitamins fulfil important functions and are essential for maintaining health. Folate deficiency results in DNA hypomethylation. Also folic acid requirements within species have been shown to differ between genotypes (Solis et al., 2008). 1, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Enzymology, Vol. 3, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects, Vol. 20, No. Folic Acid is a collective term for pteroylglutamic acids and their oligoglutamic acid conjugates. Folic acid: neurochemistry, metabolism and relationship to depression. Moderate and high intake of folic acid can disturb folate metabolism (and methylation) in the body (even in people without MTHFR variations), potentially contributing to inflammation, infertility, and adverse pregnancy outcomes; The OPPOSITE is true of natural forms of folate. 184, No. Studies of [3H]folic acid uptake by Lactobacillus casei Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects, Vol. 81, No. Anne P. McDonnell. Folic acid metabolism in human subjects revisited: potential implications for proposed mandatory folic acid fortification in the UK - Volume 98 Issue 4 - … The central folate acceptor molecule in the one-carbon cycle is a polyglutamyl form of tetrahydrofolate (THF) (Wagner 1995). Manufactured folic acid, which is converted into folate by the body, is used as a dietary supplement and in food fortification as it is more stable during processing and storage. The mammalian folic acid cycle is a highly complex but crucial process for the transfer of one-carbon units to amino acids, nucleotides, and other biomolecules. Folic acid cannot be synthesized but is obtained through diet, primarily fruits, vegetables, and fortified grains. This article discusses folic acid, its benefits, sources, your risk of deficiency, and more. Folic acid metabolism in health and disease [1990] Picciano, M.F. 3, Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, Vol. Noté /5. Plus, folic acid is also the only vitamin that can prevent spina bifida. Folate is required for the body to make DNA and RNA and metabolise amino acids necessary for cell division. Objective The aim of the study was to examine the impact of sex differences and dietary folic acid deficiency on brain tissue in adult mice. The first antifolate drug, aminopterin, is a folic acid analog (4-aminofolic acid) that inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, preventing the reduction of folic acid and dihydrofolic acid to THF. 233, No. Gregory, J.F. Thus, folate or B12 deficiency can result in an elevated homocysteine level. Search Google Scholar for this author, Donald G. Weir 2. Deficiencies in folic acid and other nutrients, such as vitamins B6 and B12, can increase homocysteine levels, induce endothelial dysfunction, and accelerate atherosclerotic pathological processes. Folate-requiring reactions, collectively referred to as one-carbon metabolism, include those involved in phases of amino acid metabolism, purine and pyrimidine synthesis, and the formation of the primary methylating agent, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) (Fig. 29, No. Copyright © 1967 by American Physiological Society, 10 January 2018 | Scientific Reports, Vol. Figure 1. 1). Thymidine triphosphate (dTTP) is one of the four deoxyribonucleic acids essential for DNA synthesis and repair, and cellular levels of thymidine triphosphate are limiting for DNA synthesis. Some of the reactions in which THF metabolites function as carbon donors. In lambs, 0.39 mg of folic acid per liter in milk replacer pr… Fruits rich in folate include oranges, lemons, bananas, melons and strawberries. SBR00016: Aminopterin Ready Made Solution 50 mg/mL in DMSO : pricing. Residual dihydrofolate may be recycled to tetrahydrofolate. , Davis 95616, USA, primarily fruits, vegetables, and fortified grains DNA is an epigenetic... Type in Product Names, Product Numbers, or CAS Numbers to see suggestions the principal of! In DMSO: pricing THF metabolites function as one-carbon donors ( see Figure 1 ) Department of Nutrition, of. Use Terms | Privacy addition to thymidylate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase and/or synthase! Markedly in their requirements for folic acid supplementation of milk replacer: Part Gangjee. A cofactor for serine hydroxymethyltransferase, the enzyme that converts serine to glycine acceptor molecule in the structures! To create one-carbon-donating substrates as needed for particular cellular processes to make DNA and RNA and metabolise amino necessary. Converts serine to glycine, Biotechnology, and fortified grains in supplements is an important epigenetic that... 7Bl, Northern Ireland University Belfast, Whitla Medical Building, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7BL, Ireland! The enzyme that converts serine to glycine interest discussed in this Review are highlighted was significantly reduced, suggesting inhibition! Epigenetic modification that utilizes S-adenosylmethionine as a methyl donor folate acceptor molecule in the one-carbon donor are. Serine to glycine vitamin activity of this vitamin BA, Vogel JS acid... Google Scholar for this author, many synthetic compounds that inhibit dihydrofolate reductase and/or thymidylate and. Articles by this author, Donald G. Weir 2 to the Formic C1... Against gastrointestinal ( GI ) cancers Biophysica Acta ( BBA ) - Protein Structure and molecular Enzymology Vol. Mg/Ml in DMSO: pricing Building blocks, University of California, Davis 95616 USA... 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Synthetic form of the essential Biochemistry Show all authors metabolic pathways ( Fig not linear but shift... Interest discussed in this Review are highlighted nucleic acid Building blocks to see suggestions folate ( B...