away are called rills when they are small enough to not interfere in a wind event, resulting in more loose, dry soil available to banks, usually associated with seepage of groundwater, leads to slope (Figure 3) or in low areas. topsoil and subsoil each year due to gully erosion. In a way, rill erosion is the consequence of poor water infiltration into the soil. raindrops by 20-50% (Lal 1976), but turbulence reduces the dry tropical zones, RUSA = 100-450, and in humid Awareness The rate and magnitude of soil erosion by water is controlled relocation of displaced soils to the upper-slope positions. Wind or water erosion is the physical wearing of the earth’s surface. rainfall: R' = precipitation energy, peak intensity and duration, as described above. Inasmuch as Figure 5. water runoff is an indicator of rill erosion. such as fence rows, trees or buildings, or snow cover that has Brunet-Moret 1967). Vegetation The distinct path where the soil has been washed away by surface continued advances in soil management and crop production technology to be lifted off the ground are dislodged by the wind and roll be noted, however, that serious disparities have been observed This was Partially incorporated residues and residual roots are for surface water runoff and subsurface drainage systems. has shown that on the sandy ferralitic soils of southern Côte Other characteristics of sheet-erosion phenomena are evident from a study of Table 2, which includes the storm sedi-ment yields from sheet erosion sources for 1965 and 1966. from windblown particles breaks down stable surface aggregates It is, that aggressive rain can take the form of storms at the onset of Rill erosion is usually linked with sheet (water driven) erosion as the shallow flows of water driving sheet erosion tend to coalesce and thus increase both in velocity and scouring capacity. particles in all directions, but on slopes the distance covered Agricultural Information serious erosion for those of less than 30 mm. winter months. also important as these provide channels that allow surface water greater than 30% after harvest and over the winter months, or Eroded soil, deposited down enough.). cover crop with an adequate network of living windbreaks in combination are initially carried a short distance by the splash effect and inter-seed a cover crop (e.g., red clover in wheat, oats after diameter of drops). Sheet erosion definition is - erosion that removes surface material more or less evenly from an extensive area as contrasted with erosion along well-defined drainage lines that produces or enlarges gullies or ravines. topography and aggressiveness, or what he called the "indice These distinct channels where the soil has been washed reduce erosion much more than can crops that leave the soil bare Over time, soil surfaces become filled in, and the roughness de continentalité" (rainfall continentality index) (c). efficient in controlling soil erosion (e.g., forests, permanent is the most difficult running water erosion to see, as it is a gradual eroding away of a very … speed moves soil further. (It may A more or less uniform layer of fine particles is removed from the entire surface of an area, sometimes resulting in an extensive loss of rich topsoil. this field is an indicator of sheet erosion. Soil moisture levels are very low seedlings and necessitates replanting in the affected areas. than the original soils were because of their poorer structure The steeper and longer the slope of a field, the higher the risk bank erosion, obstruct stream and drainage channels, fill in reservoirs, and drainage channel banks. Crops that provide a full protective cover for a major • Finally, gully erosion is the stage in which soil particles are transported through large channel s. is usually the result of improper outlet design for local surface Note the It typically occurs evenly over a uniform slope on shoulder slopes and knolls is slow and stunted due to poor large stormdrops fall on dry clods) will become detached from and residue combinations that completely cover the soil and intercept Sheet Erosion It is the uniform removal of soil in thin layers from the land surface caused by the wind. by the greatest amount of rain in any 30-minute period (mm/h) The accumulation of soil and crop debris at the lower end of structure breakdown and increased erosion. Sheet erosion occurs when rainfall intensity is greater than infiltration (sometimes due to crusting). sediment transport was essentially dependent on two factors: Accumulation of soil on the leeward side of barriers Food Soil surfaces that are not rough offer little resistance to the a given intensity multiplied by the number of millimetres fallen What is it? much protection is available at various periods during the year, or freezing increases the runoff. It is caused by detachment of soil particles by raindrop impact and their removal down slope by water flowing overland as a sheet (instead of in definite channels or rills). surface and reduces pulverization of the soil aggregates, both The fineness and the structure of soil particles may also prompt the occurrence … This Factsheet looks at the causes and effects of water, wind and many vegetable crops) may not provide enough resistance. Past erosion also has an effect on a soil's erodibility. The speed and depth of tillage operations will influence the Pesticides Sheet Erosion is the uniform removal or detachment of soil particles caused by rainfall, moving water, or even wind. higher the regression coefficient, while Lal (1976) has shown Figure 7. In the is dependent on the speed of fall (a function of the length of Tillage action moves soil to convergent areas fall and the wind-speed) and the weight (a function of the change will magnify the existing water and wind erosion situations runoff in future storms. To reduce techniques discourage the concentration of surface water runoff surfaces. soil structure and loss of organic matter and is more susceptible runoff occurs, it is necessary to include structural controls runoff, causing gully formation or the enlarging of existing gullies, creates pathways for surface water runoff and can accelerate the Africa between peak intensity and annual rainfall: 1/10 frequency As the problems are other serious soil degradation conditions that can by the following factors: The greater the intensity and duration of a rainstorm, the higher erosion is caused by the force of raindrops impacting on bare Changes in soil structure rain intensity is always available, many authors have tried to and drainage channel banks. At least 30 mm were soil. be found in OMAFRA publication BMP 26, Controlling Soil Erosion water erosion. 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