Matthew Hopkins was many things: a tavern owner, a former lawyer, a dedicated Puritan. At the top end of society, clerks, lawyers, wig makers and doctors paraded themselves boldly through the cobbled streets. Matthew Hopkins died in 1647, the Salem witch trials were 50 years later in 1693 and 1694. Purchase this issue for $36.00 USD. This item is part of a JSTOR Collection. Still, unconcerned with this, the crew maintained their high rate of accusations until the 27th of August, 1645, the date of the Bury St. Edmunds trials. for example, the Monks Eleigh Parish Register contains the following entry: 'December 19 1748. Folk belief and religious devotion created a heady mix and In 1582, Brian Darcy had overseen the St Osyth Witch Trials. of Contents. In his short career as witch hunter, spanning less than two years, Hopkins was responsible for between 200 and 300 women trialed as a witch, making up 60% of all witch trials between the early 15th Century and the late 18th Century. Traditional legal systems had broken down.The weather was noticeably poor all round with wet summers and cold winters bringing sickness and poor food production, whilst inflation eroded wealth. Hopkins's methods and demonology, and the witch-hunt itself, have been described as an aberration in English witch prosecution, due to Hopkins's use of “continental” demonology and extreme measures. They were the first of their kind in Scotland and saw over one hundred accused, imprisoned and tortured, leading to many confessions. This book is quite unusual in that it is written by Matthew Hopkins, the infamous "Witchfinder General", who was responsible for the deaths of a number of women in the 1600's believed by him to be witches. Matthew Hopkins was considered to be part of this pro-parliament movement and would have have support in his push for social reform. It was rumoured that Matthew Hopkins had ‘The Devils Book’, a directory of all the witches in England. On August 27, 1645, the small town of Bury St Edmunds, England set a grisly record. Lowes was thought to have been something of a contentious character locally and many were keen to accuse him of witchcraft. The Man Himself. Matthew Hopkins took a leading role in finding and prosecuting witches during the East Anglia trials of the 1640s. The woman in the tale was Elizabeth Clarke, an old, poor widow with only one leg who lived in Manningtree. Matthew Hopkins, assumed the title of Witch-finder General in 1645. Matthew Hopkins profitted greatly from witch-hunting which had no evidence behind it. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions Free shipping . This act forbade the use of witchcraft to: “use devise practise or exercise, or cause to be devysed practised or exercised, any Invovacons or cojuracons of Sprites witchecraftes enchauntementes or sorceries to thentent to fynde money or treasure or to waste consume or destroy any persone in his bodie membres, or to pvoke [provoke] any persone to unlawfull love, or for any other unlawfull intente or purpose”. The Discovery of Witches, by Matthew Hopkins THE DISCOVERY OF WITCHES IN Answer to severall QUERIES, LATELY Delivered to the Judges of Assize for the County of NORFOLK And now published by MATTHEW HOPKINS, Witch-finder FOR the Benefit of the whole KINGDOME M. DC. Within this vacuum, a dark cloud of fear bred, feeding on a devoutly religious and deeply superstitious population who felt increasingly isolated. Title: The Discovery of Witches. a) 200 b) 300 c) 500 4) How did Matthew Hopkins torture his victims? A witch-hunt or a witch purge is a search for people who have been labeled witches or a search for evidence of witchcraft, and it often involves a moral panic or mass hysteria. a) True b) False 3) How many women was Matthew Hopkins responsible for killing? Five others died in jail. The scene was set for him to embark on his most famous and peculiar of careers. Hopkins and his crew worked tirelessly, rounding up large numbers of the accused from the local population. In the will of one Daniel Wyles, dated 1619 is the following entry: “James hopkins, preacher of the word of God at Great Wenham and to his wife, leaving 6s 8d each to their children, James, Thomas and John when able to read a chapter in the new testament, to buy a bible.”, From this we know that Matthew was not born by 1619, suggesting he would have been born in the following several years with most sources attributing his birth no later than 1620. On the fourth night of such treatment, Elizabeth Clarke finally gave in, admitting guilt to communion with no less than five animal familiars, a white kitten by the name of Holt, a fat spaniel with no legs named Jarmara, a black rabbit named Sack and Sugar, Newes the Polecat and Vinegar Tom, a greyhound with the head of an Ox. They also relied upon villagers to identify witches in the first place, long… One of the most remarkable episodes to come out of the European witch craze was the panic that gripped East Anglia, England from 1645-1647. Trace back the religious origins of many witch stereotypes. See Article History. I am a Christian hetero, I do not believe in burning witches. The main evidence, according to Hopkins were the three teats found on her body after she had been stripped and searched. 20 shillings are 1 pound. He hailed from a Puritan, East Anglian background, an area of England that would later see heavy emigration to America and a people that would carry their beliefs into the Salem Witch Trials. Fill __ the _____. (Witchfinder Fact 1) The activities of the Essex Witchfinders took place between 1645 and 1647. EXOD. But let’s not kid ourselves. He believed that he found that there were seven or eight witches regularly practicing their dark arts close to his house. A man that, in just 2 years, was responsible for around 60% of all witch trials in England spanning 3 centuries. 3. All Rights Reserved. They would fly on a broomstick at night. It seems fair to assume that his family would have been fairly well off and that he would have had a religious Puritan upbringing. The Historical Significance of Matthew Hopkins: England’s “Witchfinder General” By Shana Hay. In 1604, the witchcraft act was amended once again, this time it remained, for the most part unchanged, however it was broadened to include the commune of a person with a demonic familiar, or invocation of evil spirits. The 14th and 15th Centuries saw a slow ramping up of trials for heresy, which slowly evolved into a complicated hierarchical categorisation in law, one such category being the use of demonic sorcery, eventually spawning the Witchcraft Act in 1542, outlining the act of Witchcraft by name as a felony, punishable by death. Crucially, it can be seen that the witches familiars were never seen to better the circumstances of the witch, only worsen the circumstances of their enemies. How did the Catholic Church Help Kick Start the Witch Craze? The people were not only concerned with how the country was to be governed, pitting Royalists against parliamentarians, but also how their religion was to be controlled. Matthew Hopkins: The Witchfinder General. They were convicted of causing the death by bewitchment of … It is here that the importance of the amendment to the Witchcraft Act in 1604 comes in to play. The 'swimming' of witches was practiced right the way through to the end of the eighteenth century. In 1735, the witchcraft act was replaced by a further amendment which instead charged witchcraft as a form of con-artistry, and labeled offenders as practicing the pretense of witchcraft rather than witchcraft proper. Matthew Hopkins, the self-appointed Witchfinder General, was based in Manningtree & Mistley during a dark period of English history – the time of brutal witch-hunts. Witchcraft accusations started to spread throughout East Anglia, spurred on by Hopkins' actions. Very soon after Hopkins and his company regulate their works, one of the opposition came from Jhon Gaule, a vicar from Great Staughton. The Press unites with alumni, friends, faculty, and staff to chronicle the University's life and history. These teats were known as “Devils Marks” and were used by witches, according to lore, to feed blood to a demonic familiar in exchange for evil deeds. Fitch of Ipswich refers to Matthew Hopkins as: Whilst this manuscript has never been found, in 1974, during his research efforts for his book “Matthew Hopkins: Witchfinder general” published in 1976, Richard Deacon put out an appeal for information regarding Hopkins early life. Copyright © 2016 by The Pennsylvania State University. I was always told by my Grandfather that the so called Fitch manuscript was really only part of several diaries compiled by W.S Fitch of Ipswich and that the item in the notes and queries was only partially correct. Author: Matthew Hopkins. And as part of a land-grant and state-supported institution, the Press develops both scholarly and popular publications about Pennsylvania, all designed to foster a better understanding of the state's history, culture, and environment. Given that at the time, it was not at all unusual for local ministers to be appointed as Primary teachers as the role of education was annexed out to the churches, it would not be a stretch to assume he was home schooled, which would certainly account for the lack of records. His parents, James Hopkins and Marie Hopkins were both devoutly religious Puritans and his father worked as the minister for St. Johns church of great Wenham. Certaine Queries answered, which have been and are likely to be … Montague Summers, English author and Clergyman held no punches when he wrote of Hopkins: “He was an Orthodox Puritan of narrowest views, enough so far as his own pockets were concerned and his crusade up and down the Eastern counties, which created something like a reign of terror at the time, has caused his name to stink in the nostrils of all decent persons ever since.”, Matthew Hopkins – On the Discovery of Witches. “Matthew Hopkins, son of Mr James Hopkins, Minister of Wenham, was buried at Mistley, August 12 th, 1647. A man called Matthew Hopkins, an unsuccessful lawyer, came to help (!) The now famous story follows King James VI as he voyaged across the sea to Copenhagen in order to marry Princess Anne of Denmark. Eight years later, in 1612, the pendle witches, 9 women and 2 men were held to trial under accusations of murder by witchcraft, witchcraft to cause harm to animals, witchcraft to cause sickness, cannibalism and child murder. He had 68 people put to death in Bury St. Edmunds alone, and 19 hanged at Chelmsford in a single day. 1 pound in 1630 is worth approximately £2,370.00 today Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live. This article will also explore Hopkins's demonology and methods through a critical reading of his pamphlet The discovery of witches. I imagine he was something of a clerk today. This is a list of people executed for witchcraft, many of whom were executed during organized witch-hunts, particularly during the 15th–18th centuries.Large numbers of people were prosecuted for witchcraft in Europe between 1560 and 1630. up to 20 shillings for each. Stearne was equally as puritanical as Hopkins, though as his elder, better read and more learned in the local folklore of witches and demonic influence. Potts's Discovery of Witches: In the County of Lancaster, Brand New, Free shi... $23.89 . Free shipping . It was a time of great stress and fear among the populace and people looked to find answers to the common question of “why me?”. As 1646 began to draw to a close, The reverend John Gaule, a Puritan cleric of Great Staughton preached openly about Hopkins actions and even begun to associate Hopkins himself with demonic actions. Wherever they went, fear and apprehension followed and the accusations rolled in. It really helps us out. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org. I’d like to share some of his story because it is fascinating and totally horrific (and you like that sort of thing). Communities, looking for protection and finding none from traditional authorities, instead turned inwards, seeking new answers in old thinking to timeless problems. This allowed Hopkins and Stearne to carry out several practices to aid in gaining a confession. His father’s will was also signed by the executor, a man by the name of Nathaniel bacon. Firstly, Hopkins is not a good guy. - HeritageDaily - Archaeology News He also visited Ipswich and shortly after Aldeburgh where he was paid £6 for his services, before moving on to Stowmarket where he charged £23. All rights reserved. Together with his henchman and fellow ‘Witch-Pricker’ John Sterne, in just 14 months, Hopkins was responsible for the condemnations and executions of some 230 alleged witches, more than all the other witch-hunters that proliferated during the 160-year peak of the country’s witchcraft hysteria. These witch-hunts occurred during the Renaissance and early modern period, between the 15th and 16th centuries, and peaking during the early 17th centuries - a period of time which corresponds almost directly with the Reformation (thus, contrary to popular imagination, they occurred not in the Middle Ages but in the historical periods that followed it). As far back as the late 10th Century saw an unnamed woman and her son drowned at London bridge for falling under suspicion of witchcraft. Whereby before, Hopkins had boasted he had access to “the devils book” which, he told, documented every witch in England, he now began to distance himself from such rumours as they threatened to turn against him. If you enjoy the podcast, please consider leaving us a review over in itunes or your app of choice. Witches killed children and used their fat to make up magic potions. After struggling to have children for many years, she gave birth to a son named Lucas. Potts's Discovery of Witches: In the County of Lancaster, Brand New, Free shi... $23.89 . JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. Hopkins educational records are equally sparse, though from his later writings, we know that he could both speak and write English and Latin with a degree of competency. “The Discoverer never travelled far for it, but in March 1644 he had some seven or eight of that horrible sect of Witches living in the Towne where he lived, a Towne in Essex called Maningtree, with divers other adjacent Witches of other towns, who every six weeks in the night (being alwayes on the Friday night) had their meeting close by his house and had their severall solemne sacrifices there offered to the Devill, … The belief in witches did not really begin until the Enlightenment in the 1700s and continued even after that in certain areas. These were all contributing factors that would open the door for fear to stretch its fingers out to every corner of the country. Clearly sorcery was an epidemic, Stearne and Hopkins switched roles, Stearne became his assistant and second in command and they added three more members to their crack squad, Mary Phillips, whose speciality lye in finding Devils Marks, Edward Parsley and Frances Mills. He found that rather than saviour of the people, he was now being viewed as suspicious in his own right and condemned by the men of power throughout the region. He laterly justified the extortiante expense to the local populations in his pamphlet as such: “He never went to any towne or place, but they rode, writ, or sent often for him, and were (for ought he knew) glad of him.”. The Historical Significance of Matthew Hopkins: England’s “Witchfinder General” By Shana Hay. For everyone else, a years imprisonment was deemed punishment enough. Hopkins existed in a time when there was a considerable vacuum in law enforcement. Matthew Hopkins was paid by how many witches he found so it was in his interests to find them and punish them- he travelled from village to village to try and find them. It was on several levels a complex, perfect storm that allowed for a man like Hopkins to thrive. What Fitch had said was that Hopkins “Made little note in the law”, and not that he was a lawyer. Editorials in parliamentary papers were speaking out against his torturous actions and Hopkins was ordered to cease his “swimming” activities. It was during the English Civil War that Matthew Hopkins rose to power, calling himself the 'Witch Finder General', although never officially recognised or given such a title. There, they tried and … A stylish serial killer with a swagger. With religious schisms affecting many countries, as well as assorted territorial or dynastic wars, uncertainty and paranoia were rife within society, as was religious z… His mother, Marie Hopkins was born to a Huguenot family who had left france in 1572, when 40 thousand Huguenots left france following the St. Bartholomew’s day Massacre and settled in East Anglia, the region of England encompassing Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire. He detailed his first run in with witchcraft as such: “The Discoverer never travelled far for it, but in March 1644 he had some seven or eight of that horrible sect of Witches living in the Towne where he lived, a Towne in Essex called Maningtree, with divers other adjacent Witches of other towns, who every six weeks in the night (being alwayes on the Friday night) had their meeting close by his house and had their severall solemne sacrifices there offered to the Devill, one of which this discoverer heard speaking to her Imps one night, and bid them goe to another Witch, who was thereupon apprehended, and searched, by women who had for many yeares knowne the Devills marks, and found to have three teats about her, which honest women have not”. This was made all the easier, when using an instrument that was spring loaded, as Stearne was said to have used. Obviously, this book is not intended to be entertaining, but is simply a transcript of an interrogation by judges of Hopkins, with these notes being taken down by Hopkins himself. John lowes was the first foray for Hopkins into what could well have been a politically motivated coupe and the public humiliation of Lowes did not go unseen. Gaule set about collecting evidence of Hopkins torture and used it as a centre point when he wrote and published a book named “Select Cases of Conscience Touching Witches and Witchcraft”. Certaine Queries answered, which have been and are likely to be … As established, the 17th Century was no stranger to strife and as such, a devoutly religious population began looking back at these old traditions steeped in folklore, seeking to find a comprehendable answer for complex problems. Who had moved to Manningtree in Essex, in a document titled “ Notes and queries misleading... 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That they had seen familiars while watching her the cpurt session in 1647, Paperback by,! Do this 1 pound in 1630 is worth approximately £2,370.00 today Actually they did n't voyaged across the sea Copenhagen! Was misleading consider leaving us a review over in itunes or your account Mistley heath Copenhagen in order marry. Around 20 men, Hopkins and Stearne went about the business of coaxing a confession Stearne arrived in.! How did Matthew Hopkins, an unsuccessful lawyer, came to help do their evil bidding quoted. Today Actually they did n't to Manningtree in Essex finders, Matthew Hopkins, Minister of Wenham was! Was aged between 22 and 25 years old and he had 68 people put to in! Anglia discovering and trying suspected witches devastating communities who were all women were hanged his... Thousands of people were hanged for witchcraft 19 1748 him £6 for clearing the town Bury!

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