Despite these advancements, Gandhi was criticized for authoritarian tendencies and government corruption under her rule. 1882 heirateten die beiden, da waren sie 13 Jahre alt. [15] Her father was often away, directing political activities or incarcerated, while her mother was frequently bedridden with illness, and later suffered an early death from tuberculosis. [155] Although hosting the 1983 summit at Delhi boosted Indian prestige within the movement, its close relations with the Soviet Union and its pro-Soviet positions on Afghanistan and Cambodia limited its influence. Her Cabinet and government then recommended that President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed declare a state of emergency because of the disorder and lawlessness following the Allahabad High Court decision. The main reason was the perceived bias of the United States and China, rivals of the USSR, towards Pakistan. [203][204][205], Gandhi considered the north-eastern region important, because of its strategic situation. [181] During Charan Singh's short time in office in the second half of 1979, inflation averaged 18.2%, compared to 6.5% during Gandhi's last year in office (1984). [56], Despite the victory against Pakistan, the Congress government faced numerous problems during this term. Her lieutenant, P. V. Narasimha Rao, later became prime minister and approved full diplomatic ties with Israel in 1992. The ambitious Union finance minister, Charan Singh, who as the Union home minister during the previous year had ordered the Gandhi's' arrests, took advantage of this and started courting the Congress. [162], During Lal Bahadur Shastri's last full year in office (1965), inflation averaged 7.7%, compared to 5.2% at the end of Gandhi's first term in office (1977). The political economist, Jyotindra Das Gupta, cryptically questioned "...whether or not the real supporters of land-holders were in jail or in power? [174][175] In light of the circumstances, liberalisation became politically suspect and was soon abandoned. However, Mujibur Rahman's pro-India policies antagonised many in Bangladeshi politics and the military, which feared that Bangladesh had become a client state of India. [152] At the same time, Chinese influence in Africa had declined owing to its incessant quarrels with the Soviet Union. Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman recognised Gandhi's contributions to the independence of Bangladesh. During Nehru's time as Prime Minister of India from 1947 to 1964, Gandhi was considered a key assistant and accompanied him on his numerous foreign trips. [45] Most of this was done to protect employment and the interests of organised labour. 12. As an only child, Gandhi naturally stepped into the political light. Gandhi did not see the purpose of feminism. The operation badly damaged or destroyed parts of the Temple complex, including the Akal Takht shrine and the Sikh library. Indira Gandhi was born on 19 November 1917 in Allahbad, United Provinces, British India. Citing separatist tendencies, and in response to a call for revolution, Gandhi instituted a state of emergency from 1975 to 1977 where basic civil liberties were suspended and the press was censored. www.bpb.de/internationales/asien/indien/189897/indiens-nehru-gandhi-dynastie In 1975, Gandhi declared the state of Jammu and Kashmir as a constituent unit of India. Dr. T D Dogra's Expert Evidence in trial of assassination of Late Mrs. Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India (Witness No. Rajiv Gandhi got married to Sonia Gandhi on 25 February 1968. In the second volume of his autobiography titled, The Turbulent Years: 1980-1996, Mukherjee details how he and Rajiv Gandhi came to learn of Indira Gandhi's assassination, sharing remarkable details around his relationship with the younger Gandhi as well. ", "BBC On This Day | 12 | 1975: Gandhi found guilty of corruption", "A Page From The Past: All You Need To Know About Emergency Imposed By Indira Gandhi Government", "Cong blames Sanjay Gandhi for Emergency 'excesses, "Emergency 'propagandist' who banned Kishore Kumar songs", "How Fernandes ran a high-voltage campaign for Chikkamagaluru bypoll", "Tale of two hijackers: One is Congress candidate, other most wanted", "1980: Gandhi returned by landslide vote", "Indira Gandhi becomes Indian prime minister – Jan 19, 1966 – History.com", "Last speech of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi prior to her assassination", "Remembering Indira Gandhi on her 29th death anniversary", "India Hangs Two Sikhs Convicted In Assassination of Indira Gandhi", "32 years of Indira Gandhi assassination, anti-Sikh riots: All you need to know", "Indira Gandhi's assassination sparks a fearful round of sectarian violence", "Indira Gandhi assassination trial: Satwant Singh and Kehar Singh hanged", Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues With Sikh Militants, We the eyeballs : Cover Story – India Today, "HS Phoolka releases video of Rajiv Gandhi's speech justifying 1984 riots", "Watch: The shocking video where Rajiv Gandhi justified 1984 anti-Sikh riots \website=dnaindia.com", Nixon's dislike of 'witch' Indira, BBC News, 29 June 2005, "BBC NEWS | South Asia | Nixon's dislike of 'witch' Indira", Former PM Indira Gandhi honoured with Bangladesh's highest award, The Economic Times, 25 July 2011, "Indira – terror personified or goddess? [108], Gandhi was taken to the All India Institutes of Medical Sciences at 9:30 AM where doctors operated on her. Kaufleute wie sie gehörten der dritten Kaste an und galten als gesellschaftliche und politische Oberschicht. At the beginning of her first term as prime minister, she was widely criticised by the media and the opposition as a "Goongi goodiya" (Hindi for a "dumb doll" or "puppet") of the Congress party bosses who had orchestrated her election and then tried to constrain her. The support of the Soviets with arms supplies and the casting of a veto at the United Nations helped in winning and consolidating the victory over Pakistan in the 1971 Bangladesh liberation war. This had been her first economic policy formulation, six months after coming to office. Several books on Gandhi mention her interest in Joan of Arc. "[222], Gandhi felt guilty about her inability to fully devote her time to her children. Their marriage lasted 18 years until he died of a heart attack in 1960. Indian diplomats hoped to win Arab support in countering Pakistan in Kashmir. [192] Jayaprakash Narayan, who became famous for leading the opposition to Gandhi in the 1970s, solidly praised her nationalisation of banks. Since Gandhi had lost her seat in the election, the defeated Congress party appointed Yashwantrao Chavan as their parliamentary party leader. [106] Beant Singh shot her three times using his side-arm; Satwant Singh fired 30 rounds. The Nehru family is also often referred to as the Nehru-Gandhi family since the Gandhi family name was derived from Feroze Gandhi whom Indira Priyadarshini Nehru got married to and thendecided to change her name. [201], In the late 1960s and 1970s, Gandhi had the Indian army crush militant Communist uprisings in the Indian state of West Bengal. [citation needed] On 23 June, Sanjay was killed in a plane crash while performing an aerobatic manoeuvre in New Delhi. [37], Her first eleven years serving as Prime Minister saw Gandhi evolve from the perception of Congress party leaders as their puppet, to a strong leader with the iron resolve to split the party over her policy positions, or to go to war with Pakistan to liberate Bangladesh. Before the 1980 elections Gandhi approached the then Shahi Imam of Jama Masjid, Syed Abdullah Bukhari and entered into an agreement with him on the basis of 10-point programme to secure the support of the Muslim votes. Family and career. "Mrs Gandhi has still today overwhelming support in the country," he said. His younger brother, Sanjay Gandhi, was a politician. The party included right wing Hindu Nationalists, Socialists and former Congress party members. It was passed in the Lok Sabha but fell short of the two-thirds majority in the Rajya Sabha by a single vote. [26][27] Indira did, however, have an active part within the student life of the university, such as membership in the Oxford Majlis Asian Society. She said: "There is a lot of talk about our government not being clean, but from our experience the situation was very much worse when [opposition] parties were forming governments. [135] However, relations soured over Sri Lanka's movement away from socialism under J. R. Jayewardene, whom Gandhi despised as a "western puppet". San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985. [41] The economy managed to recover in 1966 and ended up growing at 4.1% over 1966–1969. [166] The government was also successful in procuring houses for landless labourers; According to Francine Frankel, three-fourths of the targeted four million houses was achieved in 1975 alone. On their part, the ASEAN nations were unhappy with Gandhi's sympathy for the Viet Cong and India's strong links with the USSR. [248], Her actions in storming the Golden Temple alienated Sikhs for a very long time. [148], On 26 September 1981, Gandhi was conferred with the honorary degree of Doctor at the Laucala Graduation at the University of the South Pacific in Fiji. Gandhi survived party in-fighting, emerging as a popular leader thanks in part to efforts to revitalize the farming industry. [165] In contrast to the reception of Gandhi's earlier economic plan, this one was criticised for being a "hastily thrown together wish list. The army used heavy artillery, including tanks, in the action code-named Operation Blue Star. The Nehru–Gandhi Family is an Indian political family that has occupied a prominent place in the politics of India. After a significant exodus from the party to Singh's faction, Desai resigned in July 1979. "[45] In the 1980s, Gandhi was accused of "betraying socialism" after the beginning of Operation Forward, an attempt at economic reform. "[237] At another point, she went into more detail: "To a woman, motherhood is the highest fulfilment ... To bring a new being into this world, to see its perfection and to dream of its future greatness is the most moving of all experiences and fills one with wonder and exaltation. In this context, Gandhi was accused of formulating populist policies to suit her political needs. [165][173] Much of that growth, however, was offset by the fact that the external aid promised by the United States government and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), meant to ease the short-run costs of adjustment to a liberalised economy, never materialised. [127][128] This was denounced as a "despicable act" by China. The main legacy of her rule was destroying internal party democracy in the Congress party. She managed to enter England in early 1941, and from there returned to India without completing her studies at Oxford. "[38], Gandhi formed her government with Morarji Desai as deputy Prime Minister and finance minister. A refugee crisis put pressure on her. Rajiv took office as prime minister following his mother's assassinationin 1984; he served until December 1989. "From Navnirman to the anti-Mandal riots: the political trajectory of Gujarat (1974–1985)." India perceived ASEAN to be linked to the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) and, therefore, it was seen as a pro-American organisation. Sunanda K. Datta-Ray; "Indira Gandhi: Enigma, Mother-Goddess and Terror Incernate". [233] Thus by 1947, she was already well immersed in politics, and by 1966, when she first assumed the position of prime minister, she had held several cabinet positions in her father's office. In 1969, she fell out with senior Congress party leaders over several issues. Her government targeted an average growth rate of 5.2% over the period of the plan. [75] However, the Janata government's home minister, Choudhary Charan Singh, ordered her arrest along with Sanjay Gandhi on several charges, none of which would be easy to prove in an Indian court. He was the City Kotwal i.e. [25] At Oxford, she did well in history, political science and economics, but her grades in Latin—a compulsory subject—remained poor. [165] There was an emphasis on tightening public expenditures, greater efficiency of the state-owned enterprises (SOE), which Gandhi qualified as a "sad thing", and on stimulating the private sector through deregulation and liberation of the capital market. Gandhi was known for her anti-communist stance in the 1950s, with Meghnad Desai even describing her as "the scourge of [India's] Communist Party. That government had the distinction of being India's first-ever elected Communist Government. Repression and violence by the Pakistani army led to 10 million refugees crossing the border into India over the following months. [170] Only 7.4% (24) of the total 330 biographical extractions posit ideology as a reason for her policy choices. While unveiling the portrait on Tuesday, UP CM Yogi Adityanath termed Savarkar as a great freedom fighter and philosopher whose personality is a source of inspiration for all Indians. [150] Victory over Pakistan and India's possession of nuclear weapons showed the degree of India's progress. Soon afterwards, the Congress party split again with Gandhi floating her own Congress faction. The easy trade deals also applied to non-military goods. [citation needed], Gandhi claimed that only "clear vision, iron will and the strictest discipline" can remove poverty. Chief among them was her decision to support V. V. Giri, the independent candidate rather than the official Congress party candidate Neelam Sanjiva Reddy for the vacant position of president of India. "[169], In summarising the biographical works on Gandhi, Blema S. Steinberg concludes she was decidedly non-ideological. She did not appoint any women to full cabinet rank during her terms in office. The government targeted growth at 5.7% while stating as its goals, "growth with stability and progressive achievement of self-reliance. [144] However, the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 presented a dilemma for the Arab and Muslim states of the Middle East as the war was fought by two states both friendly to the Arabs. [215] Despite India being officially part of the Non-Aligned Movement, she gave Indian foreign policy a tilt towards the Soviet bloc. [60], Gandhi moved to restore order by ordering the arrest of most of the opposition participating in the unrest. [244], Being at the forefront of Indian politics for decades, Gandhi left a powerful but controversial legacy on Indian politics. Singh was appointed prime minister, by President Reddy, after Gandhi and Sanjay Gandhi promised Singh that Congress would support his government from outside on certain conditions. [243] In 2012, she was ranked number seven on Outlook India's poll of the Greatest Indian. She had only a general and traditional commitment to the ideology by way of her political and family ties. [185] Gandhi declared inflation the gravest of problems in 1974 (at 25.2%) and devised a severe anti-inflation program. The assailants had fired 31 bullets at her, of which 30 hit her; 23 had passed through her body while seven remained inside her. He never promoted his family. She was said to be hailed as Goddess Durga by opposition leader Atal Bihari Vajpayee at the time. Savarkar is one of those who wrote tales of valour for India. She was to be interviewed by the British filmmaker Peter Ustinov, who was filming a documentary for Irish television. [56], On 12 June 1975, the Allahabad High Court declared Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok Sabha in 1971 void on the grounds of electoral malpractice. Indira Gandhi is the Third Prime Minister of India and also the Second longest-serving Prime Minister of India after her father Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. : IAF last strafed Indian territory in 1966", "Nagaland Accord – The Shillong Agreement of November 11, 1975", "Dawn of Peace in Nagaland – SHILLONG ACCORD", "Nehru's refusal of Kennedy's offer of nuclear detonation kept India out of the NSG", "WikiLeaks: Indira had offered to share N-tech with Pakistan", "Indira Nehru – Feroze Gandhi Wedding (in page 4 bottom/right)", "Indian women a step closer to breaking glass ceiling in politics", "Indira Gandhi Has Never Regretted Being a Woman …Well, Almost Never", "The Indian Prime Minister prepares for an election". [2] She was the first and, to date, only female Prime Minister of India. These allegations included that she "had planned or thought of killing all opposition leaders in jail during the Emergency". Children's Book Trust, page 95. University of Oxford. Nevertheless, the success of the overall economic plan was tempered by the fact that annual growth at 3.3–3.4% over 1969–74 fell short of the targeted figure. Rajiv was a young man, still India’s youngest prime minister. [182], Although Gandhi continued professing socialist beliefs, the Sixth Five-Year Plan was markedly different from the years of Garibi Hatao. [41] American policy makers had complained of continued restrictions imposed on the economy. On October 31, 1984, Gandhi was shot and killed by two of her bodyguards, both Sikhs, in retribution for the attack at the Golden Temple. [102] There were also incidents of mutiny by Sikh soldiers in the aftermath of the attack. "These programs also provided the central political leadership with new and vast patronage resources to be disbursed ... throughout the country. [145], The 1971 war became a temporary stumbling block in growing Indo-Iranian ties. Gandhi gave verbal authorisation for this test, and preparations were made in the Indian Army's Pokhran Test Range. [68][69][70], In 1977, after extending the state of emergency twice, Gandhi called elections to give the electorate a chance to vindicate her rule. 1944) and Sanjay (b. However, they received a final setback when many of them were defeated by huge margins. Bhutto asked the nation to unite and slogans such as "hum ghaas aur pattay kha lay gay magar nuclear power ban k rhe gay" ("We will eat grass or leaves or even go hungry, but we will get nuclear power") were employed. [87], By the time of Sanjay's death, Gandhi trusted only family members, and therefore persuaded her reluctant son, Rajiv, to enter politics. "Indira Gandhi." Gandhi and Sanjay Gandhi lost their seats, and Congress was reduced to 153 seats (compared with 350 in the previous Lok Sabha), 92 of which were in the South. Additionally, she endured the loss of her mother to tuberculosis in 1936. Before the war, Gandhi signed a treaty of friendship with the Soviets. In response, Gandhi nationalised oil companies in 1973. Their first son, Rajiv Gandhi was born in 1… [36] Because she was a woman, other political leaders in India saw Gandhi as weak and hoped to use her as a puppet once elected: Congress President Kamaraj orchestrated Mrs. Gandhi's selection as prime minister because he perceived her to be weak enough that he and the other regional party bosses could control her, and yet strong enough to beat Desai [her political opponent] in a party election because of the high regard for her father ... a woman would be an ideal tool for the Syndicate. We strive for accuracy and fairness. 43,000,000 (4.34 crore) and invited joint venture bids from automobile companies around the world. Her funeral was televised live on domestic and international stations, including the BBC. 3 November 1994. [166] The rise of these newly empowered social classes challenged the political establishment of the Hindi Belt in the years to come. [212][213] Gandhi authorised the development of nuclear weapons in 1967, in response to Test No. Fiscal problems associated with the war with Pakistan in 1965, along with a drought-induced food crisis that spawned famines, had plunged India into the sharpest recession since independence. Son: Rajiv Gandhi. [251], Although the Maruti Udyog company was first established by Gandhi's son, Sanjay, it was under Indira that the then nationalized company came to prominence. Web. [225] In 1956, she wrote in a letter: "It is because of this that I am taking a much more active part in politics. HAPPY FAMILY. Mark Tully and Satish Jacob, Amritsar – Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle (Calcutta: Kuldip Nayar and Khushwant Singh, Tragedy of Punjab, Vision Books, New Delhi, 1984, page 79. Her arrest and long-running trial gained her sympathy from many people. She often tried to organise women to involve themselves in politics. [citation needed], Gandhi spent a number of years in Europe during her youth and had formed many friendships there. [166] J. Barkley Rosser Jr. wrote that "some have even seen the declaration of emergency rule in 1975 as a move to suppress dissent against Gandhi's policy shift to the right. [162], The measures of the emergency regime was able to halt the economic trouble of the early to mid-1970s, which had been marred by harvest failures, fiscal contraction, and the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system of fixed exchanged rates. He was assassinated after only a few months in office. [99], After several futile negotiations, in June 1984, Gandhi ordered the Indian army to enter the Golden Temple to remove Bhindranwale and his supporters from the complex. "[66], It was said that during the Emergency he virtually ran India along with his friends, especially Bansi Lal. Indira Gandhi: An Intimate Biography. 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